The mydeltapi Webstore - information about physics and presentation of physics amd science experimental kits for hobby and learning
Please see further down to find interesting physics experimentation kits for hobby and eductation, some good physics litterature and places where you can find even more scientific kits and litterature
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About physics - information about physical properties, particles and forces
Physics is the sicence about the basic building blocks in the nature, the elementary particles. It is also the science of the most basic properties of matter. Such properties are mass, charge momentum, and elementary particles properties called charm, color and spin.
It is also the science about the forces in the nature and the laws gowerning their behaviour. These forces work on both the cosmological level, the everyday macroscopic level, the microscopic level and the elementary particle level.
A force is actually an event that leads to the exchange of energy between two particles, so that one of them loose velocity and the other gain velocity. Forces in the opposite direction can however work against each other so that the net energy exchange dimminishes or is zero.
The forces are of many kinds, for example gravity, electromagnetic force, strong force and weak force. In dayly life only electromagnetic forces and garvity are directly observed. The other forces belong to the elementary particle world only because they only work over a short distance.
A certain force can only work between tho objects if the objects have the same special kind of propery. Mass makes it possible for two objects to attract each other with gravity. Electric charge is necessary for electromagnetic force. Some forces exist in two or theree variants, for example exists the electromagnetic charge as negative and positive charges. The chrarge of particles interacting determines the direction of the force. The same charge effect repulsing force, opposite charges result in attracting force.
These forces are basically the same at all the size levels, but certain aspects of them have most impact on the cosmological level and high energy level and certain of them have most impact on very small scales.
It is very impractical to take concideration of all the aspects every time you have to compute some force and their result, and one has not yet managed to develop any theory that take into concideration all aspects simultanously. Therefore one usually applies theories that only take into concideration the most important aspects.
On very large scales, great velocities and on very great anergy levels one uses the theory of relativity. On everyday calculations one uses Newtonian physics that is the most simple of them. On the elementary particle level quantum mechanics is the theory used.
The theory of relativity takes into concideration the relativistic aspects. These tell that such things as length, time and mass appear to change when the velocity of an observed object is very great. Length contracts according to the measures, time slows and the mass increases and goes to infinity when the velocity approches the velocity of light. Therefore no object can reach or exceed the velocity of light according to the standard theory of relativity.
Quantum mechanic tells that the movement of particles cannot be predicted exactly, because the particles move somewhat unpredictably. But you can use functions to predict the chance of a particle being at a place at a given time. The distribution of the location chances often have a wave-like pattern, and hence the functions are called wave functions.
When a particle interacts with another particle or its location is measured, the particle appears at a specific spot.
Also the development of other properties in a particle or a system of particles exhibit this statistical behavior.
Because particles move in a wave-like pattern, the movements also exhibit wave-like properties like interference.
Also it is impossible to measure all things regarding a particle exactly at the same time, because the apparatus you use to measure position, momentum, energy and other properties also behaves somewhat unpredictably. You can however set up observations so that one property is measured exactly, but that will blurr out observations of other properties.
Also the forces between particles exhibit a statistical property. There is at any given time a chance for an interaction to occur, but it may not occur. However, if it occurs, the interaction takes place in form of lumps of exchanged energy and other properties. One or more lumps can be exchanged, but these lumps, called quanta, cannnot be divided.
This statistic behaviour is however mostly observed at the elementary particle level. At greater levels, the chances of the results from all the elementary particle the object consists of sums to a nearly certainty of observing a force with a certain strength and observing the object at one particular place.
When the situation gradually changes from those where relativistic and quantum effects are easily found to the scales observed at everyday situations, the results calculated from the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics gradually appoach the results one can obtain from Newtonian mechanics.
String Theory - What is That
String theory is a theory within physics which is under development and which aims at explaining all forces and particles of nature from more basic principles.
Currently one uses two traditional theories which are not 100% correct, but which work well within great but differnt areas. One is the standard theory wich is based on quantum mechanical principles and that can explain the electromagnetic force, the weak force and the strong force. This theory works very well for very small objects and small distances, but the theory is very clumpsy with several constants that are set by measurement, and not by the theory itself.
The other is the general theory of relativity that can explain the gravitational force, and the differences measured in length, time, velocity and mass for the same object when one changes from one referance frame to another. This theory works best when the masses and distances are great.
String theory and a more developed version of it, M-theory, is based on the principles of quantum mechanics and relativity and can explain all forces, all particles and most constants based on more fundamental notions.
String theory, is based on an axiom that there are more than 3 spatial dimmentions, and hence more that 3 directions that stand in a right angle at each other, actually 10 in the current version of M-theory which is described in the following. Objects or particles can have a shape of all from 0 to 10 dimmentions. These are called N-branes where N is the number of dimmentions the object have. Branes can also be of any sizes from that of tiny elementary particles to the size of an universe. A 2-brane is also called a string.
Our universe is an enormous 3-dimmentional object, a so-called 3-brane or word-brane, that is placed in an even greater super-universe with more that 3 dimmentions, and with possibly many more universes formed as branes. In that super-universe there are possibly also other 3-dimmentional universes.
Many of the dimmentions are however shrunken to tiny bubles around the particles, but that can happen in many ways, so that the boubles get different shapes and are wrapped around each other in different ways.
Ordinary particles, like electrones, photons and quarks are actually strings with to dimmentions. Some of these have free ends, while others are formed as rings.
The strings can vibrate in several ways, and they can be oriented in several ways inside the shrunken dimmentions that are wrapped around them. All these possibilities of vibration and orientation of a string gives it different combination of properties, and actually the same properties that the differnt known particles have, like electrical charge, spin, charm, colors, mass, energy, boson and fermion properties and the like.
In modern quantum mechanics, forces are explained as emission of particles called bosons, having integer spin, from one particle, and caching of that boson by another particle, so that the energy and other properties in the boson is transfered between the two particles. The different vibrations and orientations also explain the bosons of various kind and thus the various kind of forces.
The strings which have free ends are all glued to a 3-dimmentional universe object or word-brane. They can move freely withing that word-brane, but can only stick out a tiny bit into a higher dimmention.
Ring-formes strings may possibly move out of the word-brane and transverse the superspace over to another word-brane. Gravitons that transfere the gravitational forse is thought to act that way. In this way our universe and other universes may interfere with each other by gravitation. This may explain why the gravitational force is felt so weak and possibly also the hidden mass acting in our universe.
The shrinking of many dimmentions and the confinement to the 3-dimmentional word-brane is the cause that our world looks 3-dimmentional to us.
The M-theory is not any complete work yet. There are several things it has to explain in a credible way. For example has it to explain how the different big objects of various doimmentions do not usually get in the way for each other and disturbe each other. If there really are several universes, they also must be alligned parallelly within the higher dimmentions so that they usually do not collide or otherways disturbe, at least not greatly.
If gravitons are leaking over to other parallel universes, the space between our universe and the next porallel universes must be very even at any point so that the force of gravitation is the same all places where we can measure it, and the distance must be very neatly fit, so that the gravitaion has is felt with a practically useful strength for galaxes, solor systems and planets to evolve
Physics kit for hobby and eductation
Some litterature about physics and other scientific subjects, including quantum mechanics
Good sources for litterature about physics, chemistry and other scientific subjects:
A few of the titles presented here
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