Information about beer and wine production

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ABOUT BEER AND WINE PRODUCTION

Beer production and beer brewing

There is no fundamental difference between beer an wine. A fermented drink is usually called beer if it is made from certain ingredients, especially corn types, and is made so that it contains carbon dioxide.that is released as gass perls when a bottle is opened and give the drink a fresh taste. Beer is generally made in this way:

All the starch in the corn must be converted to sugar.to be fermented. This is done in the first parts of the process.


The malting process

First the corn is soaked in water to swell. It is then let in a chamber to germinate. Thereby enzymes are produced that can convert starch to sugar, and some sugar is produced allready under the germination. The main enzumes produced are alfa-maylase and beta-amylase.

- Then the germinated corn is dried, and sometimes heated in order to produce specific flavour and colors in the ready beer. The product from this process is called malt, and the processes producing the malt is called mating.


The meshing

The malt is now crushed and the husks are seperated from the malt, produceing a powder called grist.

The grist is now blended with hot water in a mesh tun and lies in the water 1-2 hours. Now proteins are broken down by enzymes and the enzymes convert the rest of the starch to sugar, producing a product called mesh.

The temperature of the blending is held at several levels in a specific time to let the different enzymes do the ideal amount of work:

At 49-55�C (120-130�F) protein is broken down. Care is taken not to break down too much, since the head of the beer is produced by protein.

At 60�C (140�F) beta-glucanase reaks down gummy beta-glucans in the mash, making the sugars flow out more freely later in the process.

At the temperature of 65-71�C (149-160�F) the starches in the malt is converted to sugar


The lautering to produce vart

The temperature of the mesh is often rised to 75 �C (165-170 �F) to dectivate enzymes. The grain rests are now filtered out fom the mesh. The rests are also washed with warm water to win out all soluble material and the wash water is blended with the rest of the liquid. The liquid product is called wart.


Boiling

The liquid is now poured into a boiler and mixed with hops, herbs or other ingredients that shall add to the taste. The Liquid is now boild in ca two hours. The boiling sterilizes the solution and, let unwanted aroma to escape, let the flavor from the added ingredients to be soluted into the wart. The boiling also deacivates the rest of the enzymes, precipitate proteins and sterilizes the solution.


Clearifying the boiled wart

At the end of the boil, the boild (hopped) wort settles to clarify it in a vessel called a "whirl-pool" and the clarified wort is then cooled.


Fermenting

Then the vart is transfered to a fermentation tank, yeast is added and the wart is fermented with the chamber closed in 2-3 weeks. By the fermentation the gassous substance carbone dioxide is produces and the pressure builds itself up. The closure and the pressure in the fermentation chamber secures that the carbon dioxide produced by the fermentation process does not escape from the beer, but dissolves into the beer. The carbon dioxide gives the beer its fresh taste, the gas pearls released by the serving and the ability to produce foam. After the fermentation, the beer is bottled.


Conditioning

Then hte beer is cooled in a tank to near the freezing point and stored from a week to several months. This stops the fermentation and let the yeast and unwanted vaste to settle at the bottom, and all this vaste will now be tapped out.


Filtering and bottling

The beer may now be filtered, but not all beer is filtered.

At last the beer is poured at bottles or barrels and stored some time to ripen.


Non-alcoholic brewery products

It is possible to take off most the alcohol after the fermentation by low pressure vaporization combined with warming. It is also possible to make a beer-like product by adding carbon dioxide to vart.


Here is a photo of the boiling cettles in a brewery - a free photo from wikipedia.org




Here is a photo of modern fermenting tanks in a brewery - a free photo from wikipedia.org



About wine production

There is no fundamental difference between beer an wine. A fermented drink is usually called wine if it is made from certain ingredients, especially grapes or other berries.

In many ways wine is a simpler product to make than beer. There are two fundamental types of wine, wite wine and red wine. The same wine types can be made from any berry type, but the color will not necessarily be red and wite.

Hot wine is red or wite wine with an eleveated amount of alcohol.


Preparing process - red wine

The berries that shall become red wine is crushed or ground, so that one gets a blending of juice and crushed berry meat - so called must. This can be done by any convenient method. This crushed mass is used further in the production.


Preparing process - white wine

The juice is pressed out of the berries, and the berry rests are thrown away or used for some other purpose.

Preparing process - ros� wine

The berries that shall become red wine is crushed or ground, so that one gets a blending of juice and crushed berry meat - so called must. After some time the juice is filtered out from the must. This allows some of the color and other substnces in the berry meat to go into the must.


Primary fermentation

The juice or must is then fermented for some, usually one to two weeks. During fermentation sugar is converted to alcohol ans also other tasty substances are produced.


Secondary fermentation

The juice is now transfered to a second tank. The berry rests in the red wine production remain in the first tank as a waste. Then the juce is fermented slowly for a long time until the process is over. This can take from a few weeks to several months.

The fermentation stops either when all the sugar is consumed or when the alcohol content is so high that the yeast is killed, usually around 12-17% dcependent of the yeast strain.

In the first case the wine will taste dry, in the latter case residual sugar content will make the wine sweet.


Making hot wine

Hot wine is produced by adding licquor to the wine. If this is done before the secondary fermentation is finished, this will stop the fermentation and make residual sugar remain in the wine so that it gets sweet.


Aging

Finer wines are the transferd to ouk barrels or other types of vessels where in ages. The aging process can take up to several years. During aging, fermentation products in the wine are oxidized so that a ritcher taste develps.


Bottling

Then the wine is bottled. The bottles with the wine can be stored for further aging process.

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