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SOME INFORMATION ABOUT MOTOR
What determines the performance of a car motor
The performance of a motor depends om many factors, some of which can be regulated by programming or chipping, others that can be regulated through mechanical operations and still others are inherent properties of the motor.
The stroke volume or more correctly, the difference between the internal cylinder volume with the piston at bottom and the internal cylinder volume when the piston is at top, is a key factor. The performance of the motor is directly proportional to this volume. As long as the frequency of rotation of the cranksahft is constant, the performance of the motor is directly proportional to the stroke volume.
The performance is proportional to the frequency of rotation of the crankshaft and hence the number of strokes per second. I order to bring the rotation speed of the car wheels in accordanc with the rotation speed of the motor, the gearbox is used. If much power is needed from the motor, one chooses a gear ratio that brings the motor inner parts in fast motion, and apply the appropriate throttle. The higher motor rotation a gear ration causes, the more effect the motor will have at a particular speed, and a car can be set up to be generally highly geared to bring out as much power form the motor as possible. An authomatic gearbox can also be controlled elctronically to choose the higher gears up to highs peeds, especially under acceleartion, and thus the car will gain in effect.
The internal volume of all lines supplying the motor with fuel and air is also a key factor for performance. Even though the motor itself is capable of high performance, the lines must be able to deliver the necessary fuel and air. The greater the internal diameter / cross section of these lines is, up to some limit, the more fuel and air can be delivered, because the friction excerted against the fuel and air will then be less, and because the feuel and air do not need to be accelaerated up to a high speed to go through.
The greater the inlet volume of the cylinder valves are, the more will the motor perform. This volume can be increases by having many valves, by having greater valves or by regulating the lift of each valve during each piston stroke. There is however some optimal value for the valve lift. If the lift is more than this value, the motor vill not perform better.
The moore speedy the pistons can open and lock, the better will the performance be. Retardation in this locking mechanism will cause leaks back from the cyliders of air and fuel and decrease the performance. The lifting of the valves, the time of this lifting, the time of closing and the speed of this lifting can be regulated electronically in many motors.
The greater the pressure of the air or air-fuel blanding going into the cylinder is, the more of this blending willl enter the cylinder, and the more will the motor perform. A turbine (turbo) or compressor can increse this pressure.
The degree of compression within the cylinders will influence the performance level. If the combustible blending of air and fuel is compressed to a very small volume when the piston is in the top position, the flame created by the ignition spark will need a smaller way and lesser time to travel in order to set the whole blending in fire. Then the blending will get its full temperature and pressure allready when it is near the top on the way down. This allows the whole energy in the blending to be applied to usefull work a longer time.
The colder the air or air-fuel blending is when entering the cylinder, the more dense this blending will be, and the better will the motor perform. An intercooler is a device to cool down the air or the air-fuel-blending. It is mostly applied together with a turbo-charger.
The capacity and internal structure of the exhaust oultlet will also determine the capacity of the motor. A too narrow outlet will cause combusted blending to remain in the cylinder and hinder new fresh air and fuel to be injected.
In order to perform the best, the ignition must be set at the right time at each piston stroke. If the ignition is set to occur just when the cylinder is at the top, or a little past the top, the performance will be the greatest.
In the air supply and fuel supply to the engines, there are many valves regulating the amount going into the cylinders and regulating the amount of air to fit with the amount of fuel. To perform at top, these valves must have a high capcity, there must not be anything that hinders the opening of these valves, and the mount of the air must be set rightly according to the amount of fuel.
Cars are usually regulated and programed not to perform maxkmally, or optimally. Rhere are both good and valid, and less good reasons for this.
One reaon is simply commercial tactics. One and the same motor can be set into different car models, but programmed to deliver different performance. When bringing new models out into the market, new motors will not need to be developed. Instead one sets in the old motor and programs it to perform more.
A new version of a cheaper car model is often set to perform less to avoid it to compete with another and more expensive model that has not come out in a new version yet. When the higher end model has come out in an upgraded version with higher performance, the cheaper model is set to have higher performance in the nect round. When a manufacturer regulate the car performance for commercial reasons, the fuel echonomy can also get less than optimal.
This kind of fraudolent tactics from the car manufactorers result in many cars having less performance than they should, are less echonomical in use, and make people get less for their money than they honestly should get.
However, there are also valid reasons for setting the performance of a car to less than the possible one:
One such reason is fuel economy. The highest possible performance will seldome be the most echonomical one.
A can also be programmed to let out as little pollution and climate gasses as possible, and this may set down the performance. This kind of regulation will generally be the same as that regulation set to maximize fuel economy.
Still another reason is to make the motor able to go a long time without service and repair, or giving the motor a long lifetime. A motor that is set to perform maximally will experience more wear than a motor set to perform more moderately.
Tax tactics may also be a reason. When programming a motor to perform less, the tax to the authorities will be lower in many areas.
Ways of increasing car performance
Changing the motor controle chip
One popular way of achieving a greater performance in a modern motor, is to set in a new chip that will be regulating the work of the motor parts in a way that crreate higher performance. To set in a new chip, however, it is necessary to unlock the motor hood or to remove the dashboard.
Reprogramming the chip with a chip programmar
Another way you can use in many car models is to apply a engine tune programmer (motor chip programmer) This is a little computer that furnishes the existing chips that are controlling the motor, gearbox, air/fuel system and other technical parts with new parameters. The computer has a controle panel that lets you choose the value of the different parameters, and thus let you tune the performance according to your own needs. It is not only possible to increase the performance, but also tune parameters related to fuel economy or waste outlet. To do the tuning you hook the programmer into the diagnostic outlet under the dashboard with a cable.
Both performance chips and programmers are customized for each car model, have separate programs for the different car models.
Reprogramming the techical parts may however not be enough to get a considerably better performance in a safe and comfortable way. In may especially be necessary to get new intakes of air an fuel and new exhaust outlet parts with higher capacity and less flow resistance.
Facilitating the air flow
An air cooling kit will shrink the voulume of the air, so that more air mass is let into the motor. Air inlet tubes and inlet parts that forces the air inwards with greater power can help to higher performance.
Performance air filters have a less reistance against the air flow, yet filter away dust as effectively as ordinary filters.
Installing a turbo charger
The ultimate way of increasing the capcity of the air and fuel inlet is to mount a turbo charger or a compressor. This is however a major and expensive technical operation.
Facilitating the exhaust flow
Bottlenecks in the exhaust system will hinder you in getting the moust out of your car motor. Therefore weak parts of the system should sometimes be replaced with stronger parts having kore capacity, for the header, muffler and catalytic converter. Sometimes the whole system should be upgraded to get the most out of the motor. Also the exhaust system can be replaced to get a tougher sound or more fancy look.
Higher performance necessitates more effective auxiliary and security systems
Whit higher performance, more heat is produced. This may neccesitate parts with higher capacity in the cooling system.
Also, with higher performance, stronger brakes and suspetion parts may be necessary to keep the car comfortable and safe.