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ARK LAMPS OR
PLASMA DISCHARGE LAMPS - What are they?
These sort of lamps has become very popular in cars and many other applications the last years. They consiss of a glass bulb which is filled with some sort of gas in law pressure. Xenon is the most ususal in car lamps. In lamps for other uses neon, argon, krypton, sodium, metal halide or mercury damp may be used. In the bulb are also two electrodes.
The lamp is igited by letting high voltage make a spark between the two electrodes. Then electrones are pushed out of the gas atoms, thus making a gas consisting of positively loaded atoms (positive ions) and electrones. Such a gas, called a plasma, leads electrisity.
The voltage applied between the electrodes thereafter, sends a current through the plasma, that is: Electrons are mooving from the negative to the positive electrode, and positive iones are in motion from the positive to the negative electrode.
The motion will cause electrons and ions to collide with gas atoms and push out electrons from the hit atoms, thus producing new ions and free electrons. in this way the ionized gas is maintained.
Electrons will also steadily fall back in place in a ion so that the electron and the ion again give a neutral atom. The potensial energy of the electron is then released as light.
Much of the light released is in the form of ulytraviolet light. The inner side of the bulb usually has a fluorescent coating that absorbes that light and reemits it as visible light.
Also collitions between electrons, ions and atoms will retard electrons and the energy is also then released as radiation. This other radiations is not necessarily visible light either, but the lamp may have components in the fluorescent layer on the inside that emit visible light when hit by that radiation.
A fluorescent couting have atoms with electrons that can be brought up to higher energy layers when hit by radiation consisting of photons with enough energy content. These energy layers have an exact energy content. States between these layers are not possible.
Light or electromagnetic radiation consists of discrete packages or particles called photons. To bring an electron up between two energy levels, the photon must have an energy content that is at least as great as the difference between these levels. When this occurs, the photon delivers its energy to the electron, the original photon disappears, and a surplus of energy more that that necessary to excite the photon is converted to heat or to a photon with musch lower energy. The electron can then fall back again one or more steps and will then send out radiation with energy like exactly the energy difference between the layer the electron was in and the layer that the electron falls back to.
The absorbtion of radiation can occur stepwise by bringing the electron up one layer by the first hit and to more energetic layers by other hits. Radiation that has a too low energy and frequency to be visible light can thus stepwise bring the electron up to successive energy layers and furnish the electron with an amount of energy that is as high as the enregy of a visible frequency. When the electron falls back again it can jump between two or more layers and emit visible light.
Radiation that has a too high energy and thus frequency to be visible can in one step bring the electron up to a new energy state that has so much added energy like the energy of a visible frequency, and the rest of the energy in the radiation is then spilled as heat or emitted as a lower frequenct radiation. Then the electron can fall back and send out visible light.
About fog light technology
Fog lights are usually mounted low on the front car. They illuminate sharply the road surface and the emmediate sides of the road and up to a low hight. The light from these lamps is cut off sharply at the top. Fog lights are yellow or white.
The purpose of fog-light monted at the front end is to increase the visibility in dense fog, rain, snow or sandstorms. The principle of fog-light is two-fold. One aim is to increase the amount of light that escape between the particles in the air to illuminate object on the road and the amount of light reflected back from those boject between the particles in the air.
Foglights can also be mounted at the rear of the car. In that case the purpose is to increase the visibility of the car for trafficants coming behind by increasing the amount of light escaping between the particles in the air.
The weavelengths of the fog-light is also so adjusted that the portion of the light falling on the particles in the air is absorbed and not reflected back.
Modern foglight is often made with plasma discharge technology with a blending of gasses that emit the wanted wavelengths, especially in the yellow and red zones.
Fog light is not allowed in all jurisdictions or only allowed at special types of wehucles or at special weather conditions, because misuse of foglight easily can blend other traficants.
GPS - GLOBAL
POSITIONING SYSTEM - What is this?
This is a navigation method based on a framework of ca 24 satellitss orbiting around the earth and sending signals down to earth. The official name of this framework is NAVSTAR GPS (NAVigation Satellite Timing And Ranging Global Positioning System). It is developed by the US Department of Defence and is managed by United States Air Force 50th Space Wing. The framework was originally developed for military purposes, but sivilian applications has gained access to the system, but with a limited precision.
The GPS framework has 24 satellites distributed around six circular orbital planes centered on the earth at an equal distance from each other. The planes have approximately 56 degree inclination relative to the equatorial plane of the earth, and are separated from each other by a 60 degree right ascension. The speed of the orbiting satellites are such that each satellite orbit the earth twice each 24 hour.
The way the satellites are distributed and orbit around the earth, makes it possible to resceive signals form at least 6 different satellites at any pount on earth at any given time.
GPS satellites broadcast three different types of data in the primary navigation signal. The first is the almanac which sends coarse time information along with status information about the satellites. The time signals are broadcast at 1.023 MHz and repeated every millisecond. This time signal is used by the resceiver to syncronize its own clock.
The second is the ephemeris which contains orbital information that allows the receiver to calculate the position of the satellite.
Data telling when the orbital information was sent out is also provided.
The navigation using GPS is achieved by resceiving signals from 3 or more satellites telling where the satellits are, and when the signals were sent out. The time delay for each signal is then used to calculate the distance to the satellites. Then the distance to each satellite is used to calculate exact position.
The satellites also broadcast timing information called the restricted Precise code, or P-code, which usually is reserved for military applications.
A GPS navigation system typically consist of a resceiver with antenna, technology to hold time information and to calculate the position and a computer with a map database and a display unit.
GPS systems can be bought as separate units, as map units to be installed in cars or as functionality built into mobile phones.
A GPS system can also include a sender that sends out information to a central where a GPS resceiver is. This way it can be used to track vehjicles or persons carrying the GPS unit. Usually the owner of the unit knows about the tracking and wishes it to be used. Most vehicles used as service vehicles use this kind of tracking nowadays, like cargo vans, police cars, ambulances, fire department cars and miitary vehicles.
But this kind of tracking can easily be buildt into units and operated by some surveillance central without the owner knowing about it. There is a possibility that many mobil phones have that kind of tracking posibilities and people are tracked without their knowledge about it.
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